The study of “split-ticket voting” has become a non-negligible topic in political science recently as the upsurge in ticket-splitting has led to a major impact on U.S. politics, at both the national and state levels, by making divided governments normal rather than exceptional. In fact, split-ticket voting occurs not only in presidential democracies; voters in many parliamentary democracies such as Australia, New Zealand, Germany, Japan, and Israel also split their tickets in elections because of various ballot structures of the electoral systems. However, previous studies on this subject mainly focused on American voting behavior, and little academic research has been explored on the impact of electoral systems on the cause of ticket-splitting.
This study investigates the institutional factor of "split-ticket voting", and tries to categorize four types of ticket-splitting. Moreover, based on eight countries'electoral data, this study analyzes the political impacts of four types of ticket-splitting on voting behavior and campaign strategy.